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Introduction to industrial maintenance

The maintenance concept is the comprehensive description of the maintenance constraints, considerations as well as plans to provide support to the operations of the system or equipment in the development process. The concept of maintenance of a system or equipment is derived from the operational concepts and the operation is the major driver in the design and support of the system. Furthermore, the requirements of the maintenance concepts are translated into the support requirements and system design. The maintenance concept continues to come into a form the decisions of the design system, as well as the product support requirements and the detailed maintenance as the activities of the system design, are completed (Waeyenbergh & Pintelon, 2002). At the time of developing the maintenance concept of the system, some important guidelines must be considered which are provided below:
  • The overall general repair policies like the criteria of repair or replacement of equipment in the system
  • Responsibilities of the organization and its top management including staff for the maintenance
  • Estimated level of repairs in the system design and support
  • Expected resource availability
  • Regulatory and statutory maintenance guidance
Maintenance Plan
The maintenance plan is an essential part of the maintenance of the system in which detailed maintenance requirements as well as expected resources required to maintain the particular system or the component of the system including the specific equipment. The plan for the system maintenance is essential because it provides the instructions and the specific guidelines to the maintenance engineers or the inspectors that how the maintenance will be performed. Furthermore, the plan for the maintenance will provide the road map as well as the clear direction of how the operations of maintenance will be performed as well as it also provides the insights when to perform the maintenance to remove ambiguities from the system. (Duarte, Craveiro, & Trigo, 2006).  
The maintenance plan is recommending and proposing the actions for the particular task of maintenance which will be needed during the maintenance life cycle for the equipment or system:
  • As the maintenance plan provides guidance for the maintenance, it also explains the technical requirements and the required resources and tools required in the maintenance of the system; 
  • It integrates the detailed resource requirements as well as the support concept;
  • It provides a complete and detailed list of consumable lists of required resources, equipment, or technological tools that will be consumed in the maintenance process.
The article describes at a glance the types of maintenance in the production manufacturing. The maintenance types or the maintenance areas which are explained in this text are:
  • reactive maintenance
  • preventive maintenance
  • predictive maintenance
  • TPM (Total Productive Maintenance)

Reactive maintenance
The reactive maintenance is the type of maintenance that is also named as the breakdown maintenance. It refers to the repairs that are done when the equipment for the maintenance has already broken down for restoring the equipment or try to repair the equipment and bring back into its previous or normal condition. Furthermore, reactive or breakdown maintenance is the repairs that are completed after the breakdown of the equipment. The management and maintenance reactive facilities are focusing to restore the equipment to the operating conditions. It is significantly costed by the emergency repairs more than planned repairs. Due to this reason, the maintenance plans can be more expensive which relies on reactive maintenance. The reason for the expensiveness of the reactive maintenance is the happening shutdowns mostly at the time of periods of peak occupancy. Furthermore, it may also be needed by the operators to depend more on the expensive external service instead of the in-house maintenance staff due to the requirement to perform repairs immediately (Swanson, 2001).

Disadvantages of Reactive Maintenance
There are some disadvantages of reactive maintenance. The first disadvantage of reactive maintenance is that it can be difficult to control the budgets. Due to the uncontrollable budgets, reactive maintenance can be very expensive. On the other side, it may also have several types of safety issues because the technicians in the maintenance have to take more risks when the activity of maintenance is reactive. Another disadvantage of the reactive or breakdown maintenance is that it is bad for backlog because the emergency repairs are generally arranging at the planned work expense which can be canceled completely. In the last, reactive maintenance can have higher costs because the reactive maintenance uses more "energy" when the equipment is not properly maintained.

Preventive maintenance
Preventive maintenance is also the type of maintenance that is performed regularly on equipment or on the system or on the components of the system to decrease the possibility of failing the system or the equipment. Furthermore, the preventive maintenance will be performed while the equipment is still working, so that it is not broken down unexpectedly. The preventive maintenance has also its further types that can be scheduled on the time or usage on the basis of the trigger. Some important preventive maintenance types are provided below along with their explanation (Budai, Huisman, & Dekker, 2006).

Preventive Maintenance based on Time
Preventive maintenance based on the time is an effective example of preventive maintenance which is initiated or triggered for the inspection regularly on the critical equipment or the system. Furthermore, the regular inspection would affect the production severely into the breakdown event. Therefore, to keep the schedules straight, it often uses the computerized management system (CMMS) as well as the computer maintenance system also make the recursive work orders in the case of the pending task.

Preventive maintenance based on usage
It is also the type of preventive maintenance which is completely based on the usage and triggered or initiated only after passing specific time or after completing some cycles of the production. In the usage-based preventive maintenance, the triggers based on the actual usage of every equipment is employed. The maintenance managers are allowed by tracking the usage with things such as operating hours of every component of the system as well as equipment monitors to set up the present parameters-based maintenance schedule. it can be understood with the help of an example. For instance, the trigger is created when a certain number of operating hours are reached by the X system to schedule the ticket for the maintenance provider to complete the needed maintenance support into the system.

Predictive maintenance
The predictive maintenance is also the type of maintenance concept which is/can be very effective and useful when utilized with the computer maintenance management system software. To assist in the determination of the condition of in-service equipment, the techniques of predictive maintenance are designed in order to estimate when maintenance should be done. The manager's review data and the notice patterns are let by the logging work order data within the computer maintenance management system into the breakdown over time. The maintenance team or the maintenance head can run the assets until it ends up of the maintenance process. On the basis of the scheduled maintenance tasks and historical data, it will be occurred by the downtime and the managers are enabled by the information for the prediction to prevent the risks and threats from the system. Furthermore, the cost savings are promised by the predictive maintenance approach over routine because it performs the tasks only at the time of warranted. The predictive maintenance can effectively use the equipment history and the need for history through analysis. It also predicts and provides a clear insight into what system should be adopted and what the equipment will be replaced for better system maintenance. Furthermore, it also assigns the personnel roles and responsibilities as well as evaluating the expected resources. In the last, it carries the maintenance based on the condition as regarded and recommended by the estimations of the degradation state of the equipment (Grall, Dieulle, BĂ©renguer, & Roussignol, 2002).

Total Productive Maintenance - TPM
The total productive maintenance is the last type of maintenance concept explained in the document. It is basically a system that is used to improve as well as maintain the system integration of the safety, production as well as the system quality by using the equipment, system, machines, employees and the processes that add the business value to the organization. Further on the explanation of total productive maintenance, it is the strategy that operates by evaluating the concept that everyone in the facility would take part in the maintenance rather than the maintenance team. The skills are used by the approach of all employees as well as seek the maintenance integrity within the performance facility. The total productive maintenance is also focusing on having all of the equipment to avoid the delays as well as breakdowns in the manufacturing processes within the working conditions. There are eight types of pillars of total productive maintenance which are: autonomous maintenance, planned maintenance, quality maintenance, focused improvement, early equipment management, training and education, safety, health, and environment, as well as total productive management in administration. These eight pillars which are mentioned above, are mostly observed on the techniques for preventative and proactive to improve the reliability of equipment (Ahuja & Khamba, 2008).

Ahuja, I. P., & Khamba, J. S. (2008). Total productive maintenance: literature review and directions. . International journal of quality & reliability management.
Budai, G., Huisman, D., & Dekker, R. (2006). Scheduling preventive railway maintenance activities. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 1035-1044.
Duarte, J. A., Craveiro, J. C., & Trigo, T. P. (2006). Optimization of the preventive maintenance plan of a series components system. International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, 83(4), 244-248.
Grall, A., Dieulle, L., BĂ©renguer, C., & Roussignol, M. (2002). Continuous-time predictive-maintenance scheduling for a deteriorating system. IEEE transactions on reliability, 141-150.
Swanson, L. (2001). Linking maintenance strategies to performance. International journal of production economics, 237-244.
Waeyenbergh, G., & Pintelon, L. (2002). A framework for maintenance concept development. International journal of production economics, 299-313.
Wang, C., Ghenniwa, H. H., & Shen, W. (2008). Distributed scheduling for reactive maintenance of complex systems. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part C (Applications and Reviews), 269-273.
Yu, J., & Zhao, H. (2005). Maintenance plan based on RCM. In 2005 IEEE/PES Transmission & Distribution Conference & Exposition: Asia and Pacific, 1-4.

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